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煤氣柜為什么會被腐蝕www.zgbjbwx.com
 

    普通碳鋼在堿液中會形成一層以Fe3O;或FeZO:為主要成分的表面膜,同時由于晶界上有碳化物和氮化物析出,使晶界上的表面膜不穩定,易溶解。在外應力的作用下產生了晶界裂紋,使新暴露出來的鐵產生FeOZ一的選擇性溶解,形成應力腐蝕。碳鋼在NaOH溶液濃度5%以上的全部濃度范圍都可能產生堿脆,而以30%左右的濃度最危險,發生堿脆的最低溫度為50℃,在沸點附近的高溫區最易發生。

    煤氣柜管道使用過程中,夏季或管道不加熱時,濃度在30一40%的堿液不發生堿脆;而在冬季,管道加熱時,溫度超過50℃,堿濃度仍為30一40%時則發生堿脆,因為實際堿管道在加熱的情況下往往都高于50℃。另外,堿性溶液只有在非常富集的情況下,才會通過如下反應溶解鐵:管道使用過程中,夏季或管道不加熱時,濃度在30一40%的堿液不發生堿脆;而在冬季,管道加熱時,溫度超過50℃,堿濃度仍為30一40%時則發生堿脆,因為實際堿管道在加熱的情況下往往都高于50℃。

    另外,堿性溶液只有在非常富集的情況下,會通過如下反應溶解鐵:

3Fe+7NaOH、N匆FeO3·ZN處FeOZ+7H

Na3FeO3·ZN處·ZN助FeOZ+4HZO、7NaOH+Fe3O4+H

7H+H、4H2

3Fe+4HZO*Fe3O4+4H2

    該管道每10日左右送一次堿,容易在焊口處沉積堿液。管道一般為單面焊,內壁常有未焊透處,存有間隙。隨時間延長,堿液濃縮,造成堿液在焊口處富集,使焊口處首先腐蝕,而且使焊道不存在金屬鈍化膜,常露出新鮮的金屬表面。根據電化學腐蝕原理,該處的金屬表面常處于陽極處,處于腐蝕狀態。氣柜原管道的接頭為焊接,焊口附近的金相組織比基體的金相組織晶粒大,加之焊接組織不均勻性及焊接后存在較多的缺陷,這樣焊道與基體金屬的表面機械性能及化學成分存在較大的差異。該管道在50℃以上的情況下使用和停用交替進行時,由于堿液的富集及較高溫度的雙重作用,很快發生應力腐蝕開裂,使管道泄漏在冬季頻繁發生。

 
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